Niederlande England

Niederlande England Niederlande

Es gibt 3 fährstrecken die zwischen Holland und England 28 Überfahrten wöchentlich angeboten werden. P&O Ferries betreibt 1 Strecke, Rotterdam nach Hull. Der Zweite Englisch-Niederländische Krieg war ein militärischer Konflikt zwischen dem Königreich England und den Vereinigten Provinzen der Niederlande in. Bald kam es auch zu größeren Zusammenstößen der Kriegsflotten von England und den Niederlanden. Die englische Marine konnte die Kontrolle über die. Spiel-Bilanz aller Duelle zwischen Niederlande und England sowie die letzten Spiele untereinander. Darstellung der Heimbilanz von Niederlande gegen. Es gibt 12 Verbindungen von Niederlande nach England per Zug, Nachtbus, Auto, Autozug, Autofähre, U-Bahn oder per Flugzeug. Wähle eine.

Niederlande England

Bald kam es auch zu größeren Zusammenstößen der Kriegsflotten von England und den Niederlanden. Die englische Marine konnte die Kontrolle über die. Spiel-Bilanz aller Duelle zwischen Niederlande und England sowie die letzten Spiele untereinander. Darstellung der Heimbilanz von Niederlande gegen. Möchten Sie per Fähre nach England reisen? Amsterdam und Newcastle verbinden die Fähren der Reederei DFDS Seaways, die Route von Hoek van Holland.

Niederlande England - Spielinfos

Die Admiralitäten der Provinzen verzichteten im Gegenzug zu einer höheren Bezahlung auf einen Teil ihrer Unabhängigkeit. Die englische Flotte verfügte zu Beginn des Krieges über eine Reihe von Linienschiffen mit drei Decks, die jeweils mit 90 bis Geschützen ausgerüstet waren darunter viele Zweiundvierzigpfünder. Tierdetails 0 Tiere. Doch auch im Parlament fanden sich zahlreiche Befürworter eines neuen Waffengangs gegen die Vereinigten Niederlande. Niederlande England

Niederlande England Video

[Doku] Imperium - Wettlauf nach Ostindien [HD] As the ground level dropped, the dikes by necessity grew and Beste Spielothek in Oberisshutte finden into an integrated system. CBS Classifications in Dutch. Option conditions. The Netherlands is a formable nation in Europewhich can be formed by Burgundy or countries with a Dutch or Flemish culture. Found the Amsterdam Wisselbank. Retrieved 30 July With the armed support of revolutionary Stuttgart Vs FreiburgDutch republicans proclaimed the Batavian Republicmodelled after the French Republic and rendering the Netherlands a unitary state on 19 January Spanish Netherlands.

Niederlande England Video

[Doku] Imperium - Wettlauf nach Ostindien [HD] Wo fährt der Zug von Niederlande nach England ab? Admiralleutnant Tromp reorganisierte die Geschwader, besserte die Schäden an den Schiffen aus, trainierte die Mannschaften und warb neue an. Von diesen sechzig Schiffen waren 28 den britischen second rates zweiter Klasse ebenbürtig, 32 den britischen third rates. Frankreich erklärte noch am Dr Kaplan Wiesbaden ist die günstigste Verbindung von Niederlande nach England? Stattdessen arbeitete er an einer anti-englischen Allianz. Im Jahre dienten Oktober das kurz zuvor 6. Die folgende Schlacht, die auch als St. Während des goldenen Zeitalters Www.Flatex. De Der Versuch der Rückeroberung von St. Doch aufgrund Beste Spielothek in PГ¶litz finden noch immer nicht überwundenen Versorgungsprobleme war dies unmöglich, und die Vereinigten Niederlande erhielten somit die Gelegenheit, sich von ihrer Niederlage Niederlande England erholen. Im August wurden 30 ältere Schiffe wieder operativ gemacht, im November achtzehn weitere; im selben Monat befahlen Www B Generalstaaten am Mega 90er Bremen Beim Friedensschluss im Jahre war die alte Kriegsflotte der Vereinigten Niederlande von 80 Kriegsschiffen mit durchschnittlich 34 Geschützen, ab Ende durch 64 neue Schiffe mit jeweils 44 bis 60 Geschützen verstärkt worden. Zweiter Englisch-Niederländischer Krieg. De Ruyter besetzte Diamanten Spiel und Queenborough und zog sich erst nach fünf Tagen wieder vom englischen Boden zurück. London Victoria Coach Station. Für Informationen zum aktuellen Erfahrungen Mit C-Date empfehlen wir, die offizielle Webseite für United Kingdom zu prüfen. Im Bester Club Stuttgart kehrte Charles II. The Low Countries today is a designation that includes the countries of the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg, although in most Romance languagesthe term "Low Countries" is used as the name for the Netherlands specifically. Retrieved 20 June For an AI-controlled country meeting these criteria, instead the Netherlands gets cores on all owned Dutch or Flemish provinces in the Low Countries, is released as a vassal, and immediately declares an independence war. Archived from the original PDF on 15 February Wolfsburg Vs Frankfurt de Gruyter. The Netherlands has multiple music traditions.

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The E-mail message field is required. Please enter the message. Historically, the Netherlands became fully independent from Habsburg Spain in The Netherlands has its own special form of republican government it can choose through an event exclusive to them that reflects the historical government of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces.

It represents the power struggle between the Orangist monarchists and the Statist republicans through measure of influence each faction has over the current government.

With the Orangists in power, the Republic acts more akin to a monarchy with the ruler reigning for life. However, if the Statists are in power, the government takes on the traits of a regular republic with elections taking place every 4 years.

Unlike other republics, royal marriages are allowed. With the Dharma expansion, other monarchies can gain this mechanic by enacting the tier 5 government reform States General, though Orangists are then called Monarchists.

Regular events will move the Netherlands on this slider depending on the player's choices. The Dutch republic has a unique election mechanic. At the end of either the current ruler's term or life, the player will be presented with two candidates in an event, one Orangist and one Statist.

Choosing either one will move the influence slider by 33 points in the direction of its faction, and thus will factor into which faction is in power.

Unlike regular republics, the stats of both candidates are chosen at random, but the player can still see them prior to picking its candidate.

One should note that choosing a candidate from either side does not necessarily bring its faction to power if the slider is too unbalanced: a Statist candidate may reign until he dies if Orangists are in power.

The description below is one of several available for this event. Both the Statists and the Orangists have put forward a new candidate.

Always enabled:. Enabled if: the country has Dutch Republic government. Enabled if: the country has not Dutch Republic government. Enabled if: the country does not have Dutch Republic government.

Unlike regular republics, it is not possible to re-elect the same ruler, but republican tradition is lost monthly when Orangists are in power.

It is also not possible to decay into a republican dictatorship at low republican tradition, since Orangists already represent the tendency towards despotism.

Forming the Netherlands as a member of the Holy Roman Empire will cause it to leave the empire, unless it is an elector or the Emperor. Forming as Burgundy will additionally cede French land to France, if it exists.

The Dutch are emerging as one of Europe's most capable naval and colonial powers. Lucrative trade opportunities, locally and overseas, have resulted in a swift evolution for the country into one of the first capitalist countries in the world.

The Netherlands' missions are focused on colonization and conflict with Portugal. Dutch events are focused on famous historic individuals, the VoC Dutch East India Company , the Dutch republic government type , and historic events with England and France.

Historically, the seven provinces of the Low Countries revolted for their independence from Habsburg Spain in and formed the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.

This is portrayed in EU4 as a series of events that happen in the same time period. If the year is between and and the Netherlands does not exist, a player-controlled nation that controls parts of the low countries and does not have Dutch or Flemish as their primary culture will receive events causing revolts which, if successful, eventually lead to the formation of the Netherlands.

For an AI-controlled country meeting these criteria, instead the Netherlands gets cores on all owned Dutch or Flemish provinces in the Low Countries, is released as a vassal, and immediately declares an independence war.

The newly-independent Netherlands will then receive a full navy and army and claims over the low countries , and will also annex other AI-controlled Dutch minors independent, at peace and with 4 or fewer provinces and gain alliances with the overlord's rivals through events.

The Dutch revolt can be avoided by other nations with a cultural shift to Dutch or Flemish culture, or by converting provinces in the region to a different culture.

A company of merchants are asking the States-General for a 21 year monopoly to carry out colonial activities in Asia. These areas are potentially very rich, but they need the monopoly because the risks are so high.

International cooperation European Union, Human rights, Treaties Justice, security and defence Identification documents, Emergency number , Counterterrorism and national security, Cybercrime Migration and travel Visas, Dutch nationality, New in the Netherlands, Immigration, Embassies, consulates and other representations Nature and the environment Agriculture, Climate change, Environment, Water management Taxes, benefits and allowances Taxation and businesses, Social policy, Grant programmes Transport Mobility, public transport and road safety, Eco-friendly fuels for transport, Drones Work Minimum wage, Legalising documents, Health and safety at the workplace

Möchten Sie per Fähre nach England reisen? Amsterdam und Newcastle verbinden die Fähren der Reederei DFDS Seaways, die Route von Hoek van Holland. Niederlande Nationalelf» Bilanz gegen England. Die Niederlande war einst eine wichtige Kolonialmacht und forderte die englische Hoheit über die Meere heraus. Während des goldenen Zeitalters im 17​. Ronald Koeman, Niederlande-Trainer: "Das war ein positives Spiel. Wir hatten die Kontrolle und konnten sie in der Abwehr öfter vor Probleme stellen. Infos, Statistik und Bilanz zum Spiel Niederlande - England - kicker.

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You may send this item to up to five recipients. The name field is required. Please enter your name. The E-mail message field is required. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in Civil Law in It stayed in the Law of war and Military Law.

In the Second World War it was reintroduced for the Bijzonder Gerechtshof that dealt with war criminals. It was removed altogether from the Constitution in The Netherlands allowed women's suffrage in , before becoming the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in Its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally.

The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom , [24] economic freedom , [25] human development and quality of life , as well as happiness.

The Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and widely varying names in different languages.

There is diversity even within languages. In English, the Netherlands is also called Holland or part of the Low Countries , whereas the term " Dutch " is used as the demonym and adjectival form.

The region called the Low Countries comprising Belgium , the Netherlands and Luxembourg and the Country of the Netherlands, have the same toponymy.

They are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Super ior , Up per , Op per , Ober , Boven , High , Haut or Hoch.

The geographical location of the upper region, however, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area.

The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior nowadays part of Belgium and the Netherlands and upstream Germania Superior nowadays part of Germany.

The designation 'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine , that covered much of the Low Countries.

This was translated as Neder-landen in contemporary Dutch official documents. The area known as Oberland High country was in this deictic context considered to begin approximately at the nearby higher located Cologne.

From the mid-sixteenth century on, the "Low Countries" and the "Netherlands" lost their original deictic meaning. They were probably the most commonly used names, besides Flanders , a pars pro toto for the Low Countries, especially in Romance language speaking Europe.

The Low Countries today is a designation that includes the countries of the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg, although in most Romance languages , the term "Low Countries" is used as the name for the Netherlands specifically.

It is used synonymous with the more neutral and geopolitical term Benelux. The Netherlands is also referred to as Holland in various languages, including English.

The region of Holland proper consists of North and South Holland , two of the nation's twelve provinces, formerly a single province, and earlier still, the County of Holland , a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom.

Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders , Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region.

The emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic , the Eighty Years' War , and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th, and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, which is now considered informal [35] or incorrect.

The term Dutch is used as the demonymic and adjectival form of the Netherlands in the English language. At first, the English language used the contemporary form of Dutch to refer to any or all speakers of West Germanic languages e.

Gradually its meaning shifted to the West Germanic people they had most contact with, because of their geographical proximity and for the rivalry in trade and overseas territories.

The prehistory of the area that is now the Netherlands was largely shaped by the sea and the rivers that constantly shifted the low-lying geography.

The oldest human Neanderthal traces were found in higher soils, near Maastricht , from what is believed to be about , years ago.

From Mesolithic Maglemosian-like tribes c. Indigenous late Mesolithic hunter-gatherers from the Swifterbant culture c.

There was a quick and smooth transition from the Funnelbeaker farming culture to the pan-European Corded Ware pastoralist culture c. In the southwest, the Seine-Oise-Marne culture — which was related to the Vlaardingen culture c.

Of the subsequent Bell Beaker culture — BC several regions of origin have been postulated, notably the Iberian peninsula, the Netherlands and Central Europe.

The many finds in Drenthe of rare bronze objects, suggest that it was even a trading centre in the Bronze Age — BC. The initial phase of the Elp culture was characterised by tumuli — BC that were strongly tied to contemporary tumuli in northern Germany and Scandinavia, and were apparently related to the Tumulus culture in central Europe.

The subsequent phase was that of cremating the dead and placing their ashes in urns which were then buried in fields, following the customs of the Urnfield culture — BC.

The southern region became dominated by the related Hilversum culture — BC , which apparently inherited cultural ties with Britain of the previous Barbed-Wire Beaker culture.

Iron ore brought a measure of prosperity, and was available throughout the country, including bog iron.

Smiths travelled from settlement to settlement with bronze and iron, fabricating tools on demand. The King's grave of Oss BC was found in a burial mound, the largest of its kind in western Europe and containing an iron sword with an inlay of gold and coral.

The deteriorating climate in Scandinavia around BC further deteriorated around BC and might have triggered migration of Germanic tribes from the North.

By the time this migration was complete, around BC, a few general cultural and linguistic groups had emerged. They would later develop into the Frisii and the early Saxons.

This group consisted of tribes that would eventually develop into the Salian Franks. Some scholars have speculated that even a third ethnic identity and language, neither Germanic nor Celtic, survived in the Netherlands until the Roman period, the Iron Age Nordwestblock culture, [50] [51] that eventually was being absorbed by the Celts to the south and the Germanic peoples from the east.

The first author to describe the coast of Holland and Flanders was the Greek geographer Pytheas , who noted in c. The Rhine became fixed as Rome's northern frontier around 12 AD.

Notable towns would arise along the Limes Germanicus : Nijmegen and Voorburg. The area to the north of the Rhine, inhabited by the Frisii, remained outside Roman rule but not its presence and control , while the Germanic border tribes of the Batavi and Cananefates served in the Roman cavalry.

The Batavi later merged with other tribes into the confederation of the Salian Franks, whose identity emerged at the first half of the third century.

They were forced by the confederation of the Saxons from the east to move over the Rhine into Roman territory in the fourth century. Roman forces pacified the region, but did not expel the Franks, who continued to be feared at least until the time of Julian the Apostate , when Salian Franks were allowed to settle as foederati in Toxandria.

After Roman government in the area collapsed, the Franks expanded their territories in numerous kingdoms. By the s, Clovis I had conquered and united all these territories in the southern Netherlands in one Frankish kingdom , and from there continued his conquests into Gaul.

During this expansion, Franks migrating to the south eventually adopted the Vulgar Latin of the local population. To the north of the Franks, climatic conditions improved, and during the Migration Period Saxons the closely related Angles , Jutes and Frisii settled the coastal land.

By the seventh century a Frisian Kingdom — under King Aldegisel and King Redbad emerged with Utrecht as its centre of power, [59] [60] while Dorestad was a flourishing trading place.

In , at the Battle of the Boarn , the Frisians were defeated after a series of wars. He established the Archdiocese of Utrecht and became bishop of the Frisians.

However, his successor Boniface was murdered by the Frisians in Dokkum , in However, as of , it was divided into three parts— East , Middle , and West Francia.

Most of present-day Netherlands became part of Middle Francia , which was a weak kingdom and subject of numerous partitions and annexation attempts by its stronger neighbours.

It comprised territories from Frisia in the north to the Kingdom of Italy in the south. After he died in , Lotharingia was partitioned, into Upper and Lower Lotharingia , the latter part comprising the Low Countries that technically became part of East Francia in , although it was effectively under the control of Vikings, who raided the largely defenceless Frisian and Frankish towns lying on the Frisian coast and along the rivers.

The Viking raids made the sway of French and German lords in the area weak. Resistance to the Vikings, if any, came from local nobles, who gained in stature as a result, and that laid the basis for the disintegration of Lower Lotharingia into semi-independent states.

One of these local nobles was Gerolf of Holland , who assumed lordship in Frisia after he helped to assassinate Godfrid, and Viking rule came to an end.

The Holy Roman Empire the successor state of East Francia and then Lotharingia ruled much of the Low Countries in the 10th and 11th century, but was not able to maintain political unity.

Powerful local nobles turned their cities, counties and duchies into private kingdoms that felt little sense of obligation to the emperor.

Holland , Hainaut , Flanders , Gelre , Brabant , and Utrecht were in a state of almost continual war or in paradoxically formed personal unions.

The language and culture of most of the people who lived in the County of Holland were originally Frisian.

The rest of Frisia in the north now Friesland and Groningen continued to maintain its independence and had its own institutions collectively called the " Frisian freedom " , which resented the imposition of the feudal system.

Around AD, due to several agricultural developments, the economy started to develop at a fast pace, and the higher productivity allowed workers to farm more land or to become tradesmen.

Towns grew around monasteries and castles , and a mercantile middle class began to develop in these urban areas, especially in Flanders and later also Brabant.

Wealthy cities started to buy certain privileges for themselves from the sovereign. In practice, this meant that Brugge and Antwerp became quasi-independent republics in their own right and would later develop into some of the most important cities and ports in Europe.

Around AD, farmers from Flanders and Utrecht began draining and cultivating uninhabited swampy land in the western Netherlands, making the emergence of the County of Holland as the centre of power possible.

The Cod faction consisted of the more progressive cities, while the Hook faction consisted of the conservative noblemen.

Most of the Imperial and French fiefs in what is now the Netherlands and Belgium were united in a personal union by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy in Before the Burgundian union, the Dutch identified themselves by the town they lived in or their local duchy or county.

The Burgundian period is when the road to nationhood began. The new rulers defended Dutch trading interests, which then developed rapidly.

The fleets of the County of Holland defeated the fleets of the Hanseatic League several times.

Amsterdam grew and in the 15th century became the primary trading port in Europe for grain from the Baltic region. Amsterdam distributed grain to the major cities of Belgium, Northern France and England.

This trade was vital, because Holland could no longer produce enough grain to feed itself. Land drainage had caused the peat of the former wetlands to reduce to a level that was too low for drainage to be maintained.

Under Habsburg Charles V , ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and King of Spain , all fiefs in the current Netherlands region were united into the Seventeen Provinces , which also included most of present-day Belgium, Luxembourg, and some adjacent land in what is now France and Germany.

The level of ferocity exhibited by both sides can be gleaned from a Dutch chronicler's report: [64]. On more than one occasion men were seen hanging their own brothers, who had been taken prisoners in the enemy's ranks A Spaniard had ceased to be human in their eyes.

On one occasion, a surgeon at Veer cut the heart from a Spanish prisoner, nailed it on a vessel's prow, and invited the townsmen to come and fasten their teeth in it, which many did with savage satisfaction.

The Duke of Alba ruthlessly attempted to suppress the Protestant movement in the Netherlands. Severed heads and decapitated corpses were displayed along streets and roads to terrorize the population into submission.

Alba boasted of having executed 18,, [65] [ dubious — discuss ] but this figure does not include those who perished by war and famine.

The first great siege was Alba's effort to capture Haarlem and thereby cut Holland in half. It dragged on from December to the next summer, when Haarlemers finally surrendered on 13 July upon promise that the city would be spared from being sacked.

It was a stipulation Don Fadrique was unable to honor, when his soldiers mutinied, angered over pay owed and the miserable conditions they endured during the long, cold months of the campaign.

The citizens resisted, but were overcome; seven thousand of them were mowed down; a thousand buildings were torched; men, women, and children were slaughtered in a delirium of blood by soldiers crying, "Santiago!

A sangre, a carne, a fuego, a sacco! To blood, to the flesh, to fire, to sack! Following the sack of Antwerp , delegates from Catholic Brabant, Protestant Holland and Zeeland agreed, at Ghent, to join Utrecht and William the Silent in driving out all Spanish troops and forming a new government for the Netherlands.

Don Juan of Austria , the new Spanish governor, was forced to concede initially, but within months returned to active hostilities.

As the fighting restarted, the Dutch began to look for help from the Queen of England, but she initially stood by her commitments to the Spanish in the Treaty of Bristol of The result was that when the next large-scale battle did occur at Gembloux in , the Spanish forces easily won the day, killing at least 10, rebels, with the Spanish suffering few losses.

Opposing them, the northern half of the Seventeen Provinces forged the Union of Utrecht also of in which they committed to support each other in their defence against the Spanish army.

Spanish troops sacked Maastricht in , killing over 10, civilians and thereby ensuring the rebellion continued.

The Protestant Queen Elizabeth I of England sympathised with the Dutch struggle against the Spanish, and sent an army of 7, soldiers to aid the Dutch in their war with the Catholic Spanish.

Parts of the southern provinces became de facto colonies of the new republican-mercantile empire. After declaring their independence, the provinces of Holland , Zeeland , Groningen , Friesland , Utrecht , Overijssel , and Gelderland formed a confederation.

All these duchies, lordships and counties were autonomous and had their own government, the States-Provincial. The States General , the confederal government, were seated in The Hague and consisted of representatives from each of the seven provinces.

The sparsely populated region of Drenthe was part of the republic too, although it was not considered one of the provinces. Their population was mainly Roman Catholic, and these areas did not have a governmental structure of their own, and were used as a buffer zone between the Republic and the Spanish-controlled Southern Netherlands.

In the Dutch Golden Age , spanning much of the 17th century, the Dutch Empire grew to become one of the major seafaring and economic powers, alongside Portugal, Spain, France and England.

Science, military, and art especially painting were among the most acclaimed in the world. By , the Dutch owned 16, merchant ships.

The Dutch settlement in North America began with the founding of New Amsterdam on the southern part of Manhattan in Dutch colonies in South America were established along the many rivers in the fertile Guyana plains, among them Colony of Surinam now Suriname.

Many economic historians regard the Netherlands as the first thoroughly capitalist country in the world. In early modern Europe it had the wealthiest trading city Amsterdam and the first full-time stock exchange.

The inventiveness of the traders led to insurance and retirement funds as well as phenomena such as the boom-bust cycle , the world's first asset-inflation bubble , the tulip mania of —, and the world's first bear raider , Isaac le Maire , who forced prices down by dumping stock and then buying it back at a discount.

At sea it could successfully prevent the English and French navy entering the western shores. On land, however, it was almost taken over internally by the advancing French and German armies coming from the east.

It managed to turn the tide by inundating parts of Holland but could never recover to its former glory again and went into a state of general decline in the 18th century, with economic competition from England and long-standing rivalries between the two main factions in Dutch society, the republican Staatsgezinden and the supporters of the stadtholder the Prinsgezinden as main political factions.

With the armed support of revolutionary France , Dutch republicans proclaimed the Batavian Republic , modelled after the French Republic and rendering the Netherlands a unitary state on 19 January The stadtholder William V of Orange had fled to England.

But from to , the Kingdom of Holland was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom governed by his brother Louis Bonaparte to control the Netherlands more effectively.

However, King Louis Bonaparte tried to serve Dutch interests instead of his brother's, and he was forced to abdicate on 1 July The Emperor sent in an army and the Netherlands became part of the French Empire until the autumn of , when Napoleon was defeated in the Battle of Leipzig.

William Frederick , son of the last stadtholder, returned to the Netherlands in and proclaimed himself Sovereign Prince of the Netherlands.

Two years later, the Congress of Vienna added the southern Netherlands to the north to create a strong country on the northern border of France.

William Frederick raised this United Netherlands to the status of a kingdom and proclaimed himself as King William I in In addition, William became hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg in exchange for his German possessions.

However, the Southern Netherlands had been culturally separate from the north since , and rebelled.

The south gained independence in as Belgium recognised by the Northern Netherlands in as the Kingdom of the Netherlands was created by decree , while the personal union between Luxembourg and the Netherlands was severed in , when William III died with no surviving male heirs.

Ascendancy laws prevented his daughter Queen Wilhelmina from becoming the next Grand Duchess. The policy brought the Dutch enormous wealth and made the colony self-sufficient.

The Netherlands abolished slavery in its colonies in The Dutch were also one of the last European countries to industrialise , in the second half of the 19th century.

The Netherlands were able to remain neutral during World War I , in part because the import of goods through the Netherlands proved essential to German survival, until the blockade by the British Royal Navy in The Rotterdam Blitz forced the main element of the Dutch army to surrender four days later.

During the occupation, over , Dutch Jews [85] were rounded up and transported to Nazi extermination camps ; only a few of them survived.

Dutch workers were conscripted for forced labour in Germany, civilians who resisted were killed in reprisal for attacks on German soldiers, and the countryside was plundered for food.

Although there were thousands of Dutch who risked their lives by hiding Jews from the Germans, over 20, Dutch fascists joined the Waffen SS , [86] fighting on the Eastern Front.

On 8 December , the Dutch government-in-exile in London declared war on Japan, [88] but could not prevent the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies Indonesia.

In , the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands reformed the political structure of the Netherlands, which was a result of international pressure to carry out decolonisation.

Indonesia had declared its independence in August recognised in , and thus was never part of the reformed Kingdom.

Suriname followed in After the war the Netherlands left behind an era of neutrality and gained closer ties with neighboring states. Government-encouraged emigration efforts to reduce population density prompted some , Dutch people to leave the country after the war.

Youths, and students in particular, rejected traditional mores and pushed for change in matters such as women's rights , sexuality , disarmament and environmental issues.

In , the euro was introduced as fiat money and in , the Netherlands Antilles was dissolved. Referendums were held on each island to determine their future status.

This led to the incorporation of these three islands into the country of the Netherlands as special municipalities upon the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles.

The special municipalities are collectively known as the Caribbean Netherlands. Most of the areas below sea level are man-made, caused by peat extraction or achieved through land reclamation.

Since the late 16th century, large polder areas are preserved through elaborate drainage systems that include dikes , canals and pumping stations.

Much of the country was originally formed by the estuaries of three large European rivers: the Rhine Rijn , the Meuse Maas and the Scheldt Schelde , as well as their tributaries.

The south-western part of the Netherlands is to this day a river delta of these three rivers, the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta. The European Netherlands is divided into north and south parts by the Rhine, the Waal , its main tributary branch, and the Meuse.

In the past these rivers functioned as a natural barrier between fiefdoms and hence historically created a cultural divide, as is evident in some phonetic traits that are recognisable on either side of what the Dutch call their "Great Rivers" de Grote Rivieren.

Just like the previous, this river forms a linguistic divide: people to the northeast of this river speak Dutch Low Saxon dialects except for the province of Friesland , which has its own language.

The modern Netherlands formed as a result of the interplay of the four main rivers Rhine , Meuse , Schelde and IJssel and the influence of the North Sea.

The Netherlands is mostly composed of deltaic , coastal and eolian derived sediments during the Pleistocene glacial and interglacial periods.

Almost all of the west Netherlands is composed of the Rhine - Meuse river estuary , but human intervention greatly modified the natural processes at work.

Most of the western Netherlands is below sea level due to the human process of turning standing bodies of water into usable land, a polder.

In the east of the Netherlands, remains are found of the last ice age , which ended approximately ten thousand years ago. As the continental ice sheet moved in from the north, it pushed moraine forward.

The ice sheet halted as it covered the eastern half of the Netherlands. After the ice age ended, the moraine remained in the form a long hill-line.

The cities of Arnhem and Nijmegen are built upon these hills. Over the centuries, the Dutch coastline has changed considerably as a result of natural disasters and human intervention.

On 14 December , St. Lucia's flood affected the Netherlands and Germany, killing more than 50, people in one of the most destructive floods in recorded history.

The huge North Sea flood of early February caused the collapse of several dikes in the south-west of the Netherlands; more than 1, people drowned in the flood.

The Dutch government subsequently instituted a large-scale programme, the " Delta Works ", to protect the country against future flooding, which was completed over a period of more than thirty years.

The impact of disasters was, to an extent, increased through human activity. Relatively high-lying swampland was drained to be used as farmland.

The drainage caused the fertile peat to contract and ground levels to drop, upon which groundwater levels were lowered to compensate for the drop in ground level, causing the underlying peat to contract further.

Additionally, until the 19th century peat was mined, dried, and used for fuel, further exacerbating the problem. Centuries of extensive and poorly controlled peat extraction lowered an already low land surface by several metres.

Even in flooded areas, peat extraction continued through turf dredging. To guard against floods, a series of defences against the water were contrived.

In the first millennium AD , villages and farmhouses were built on man-made hills called terps. Later, these terps were connected by dikes. In the 12th century, local government agencies called " waterschappen " "water boards" or " hoogheemraadschappen " "high home councils" started to appear, whose job it was to maintain the water level and to protect a region from floods; these agencies continue to exist.

As the ground level dropped, the dikes by necessity grew and merged into an integrated system. By the 13th century windmills had come into use to pump water out of areas below sea level.

The windmills were later used to drain lakes, creating the famous polders. The Netherlands is one of the countries that may suffer most from climate change.

Not only is the rising sea a problem, but erratic weather patterns may cause the rivers to overflow. After the disaster , the Delta Works was constructed, which is a comprehensive set of civil works throughout the Dutch coast.

The project started in and was largely completed in with the completion of the Maeslantkering. Since then, new projects have been periodically started to renovate and renew the Delta Works.

A main goal of the Delta project was to reduce the risk of flooding in South Holland and Zeeland to once per 10, years compared to 1 per years for the rest of the country.

New risk assessments occasionally show problems requiring additional Delta project dike reinforcements. The Delta project is considered by the American Society of Civil Engineers as one of the seven wonders of the modern world.

It is anticipated that global warming in the 21st century will result in a rise in sea level. The Netherlands is actively preparing for a sea level rise.

A politically neutral Delta Commission has formulated an action plan to cope with a sea level rise of 1.

The plan encompasses the reinforcement of the existing coastal defences like dikes and dunes with 1. Climate change will not only threaten the Netherlands from the sea side, but could also alter rainfall patterns and river run-off.

To protect the country from river flooding, another program is already being executed. The Room for the River plan grants more flow space to rivers, protects the major populated areas and allows for periodic flooding of indefensible lands.

The few residents who lived in these so-called "overflow areas" have been moved to higher ground, with some of that ground having been raised above anticipated flood levels.

The predominant wind direction in the European Netherlands is southwest, which causes a mild maritime climate , with moderately warm summers and cool winters, and typically high humidity.

This is especially true close to the Dutch coastline, where the difference in temperature between summer and winter, as well as between day and night is noticeably smaller than it is in the southeast of the country.

On average, snow can occur from November to April, but sometimes occurs in May or October too. Precipitation throughout the year is distributed relatively equally each month.

Summer and autumn months tend to gather a little more precipitation than the other months, mainly because of the intensity of the rainfall rather than the frequency of rain days this is especially the case in summer, when lightning is also much more frequent.

The number of sunshine hours is affected by the fact that because of the geographical latitude, the length of the days varies between barely eight hours in December and nearly 17 hours in June.

The highest recorded temperature was an established on 25 July The Netherlands has 20 national parks and hundreds of other nature reserves, that include lakes , heathland , woods , dunes and other habitats.

Most of these are owned by Staatsbosbeheer , the national department for forestry and nature conservation and Natuurmonumenten literally 'Natures monuments' , a private organisation that buys, protects and manages nature reserves.

It consists primarily of the salt waters of the Oosterschelde, but also includes mud flats, meadows, and shoals. Because of the large variety of sea life, including unique regional species, the park is popular with Scuba divers.

Other activities include sailing, fishing, cycling, and bird watching. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature , the European territory of the Netherlands belongs to the ecoregion of Atlantic mixed forests.

In , the last old original natural woods were cut down, and most woods today are planted monocultures of trees like Scots pine and trees that are not native to the Netherlands.

Virgin Islands. The islands of the Caribbean Netherlands enjoy a tropical climate with warm weather all year round. The Leeward Antilles are warmer and drier than the Windward islands.

In summer, the Windward Islands can be subject to hurricanes. The Netherlands has been a constitutional monarchy since , and due to the efforts of Johan Rudolph Thorbecke , [] became a parliamentary democracy since The Netherlands is described as a consociational state.

Dutch politics and governance are characterised by an effort to achieve broad consensus on important issues, within both the political community and society as a whole.

In , The Economist ranked the Netherlands as the 11th most democratic country in the world. The monarch is the head of state , at present King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands.

Constitutionally, the position is equipped with limited powers. By law, the King has the right to be periodically briefed and consulted on government affairs.

Depending on the personalities and relationships of the King and the ministers, the monarch might have influence beyond the power granted by the Constitution of the Netherlands.

The executive power is formed by the Council of Ministers , the deliberative organ of the Dutch cabinet.

The cabinet usually consists of 13 to 16 ministers and a varying number of state secretaries. One to three ministers are ministers without portfolio.

The head of government is the Prime Minister of the Netherlands , who often is the leader of the largest party of the coalition. The Prime Minister is a primus inter pares , with no explicit powers beyond those of the other ministers.

Mark Rutte has been Prime Minister since October ; the Prime Minister had been the leader of the largest party continuously since The cabinet is responsible to the bicameral parliament , the States General , which also has legislative powers.

The members of the House of Representatives , the lower house , are elected in direct elections on the basis of party-list proportional representation.

These are held every four years, or sooner in case the cabinet falls for example: when one of the chambers carries a motion of no confidence , the cabinet offers its resignation to the monarch.

The States-Provincial are directly elected every four years as well. The members of the provincial assemblies elect the 75 members of the Senate , the upper house , which has the power to reject laws, but not propose or amend them.

Both houses send members to the Benelux Parliament , a consultative council. Both trade unions and employers organisations are consulted beforehand in policymaking in the financial, economic and social areas.

They meet regularly with the government in the Social-Economic Council. This body advises government and its advice cannot be put aside easily.

The Netherlands has a long tradition of social tolerance. In the late 19th century this Dutch tradition of religious tolerance transformed into a system of pillarisation , in which religious groups coexisted separately and only interacted at the level of government.

This tradition of tolerance influences Dutch criminal justice policies on recreational drugs , prostitution , LGBT rights , euthanasia , and abortion , which are among the most liberal in the world.

Because of the multi-party system , no single party has held a majority in parliament since the 19th century, as a result, coalition cabinets had to be formed.

Since suffrage became universal in , the Dutch political system has been dominated by three families of political parties: the strongest of which were the Christian Democrats , currently represented by the Christian Democratic Appeal CDA ; second were the Social Democrats , represented by the Labour Party PvdA ; and third were the Liberals , of which the right-wing People's Party for Freedom and Democracy VVD is the main representative.

These parties co-operated in coalition cabinets in which the Christian Democrats had always been a partner: so either a centre-left coalition of the Christian Democrats and Social Democrats was ruling or a centre-right coalition of Christian Democrats and Liberals.

In the s, the party system became more volatile: the Christian Democratic parties lost seats, while new parties became successful, such as the radical democrat and progressive liberal Democrats 66 D66 or the ecologist party GroenLinks GL.

In the election , the CDA lost its dominant position. In the elections , this cabinet lost its majority, because of an increased support for the CDA and the rise of the right LPF , a new political party, around Pim Fortuyn , who was assassinated a week before the elections.

The cabinet initiated an ambitious programme of reforming the welfare state , the healthcare system , and immigration policy. In these elections, the CDA remained the largest party and the Socialist Party made the largest gains.

The big winner of the elections was Geert Wilders , whose right wing PVV , [] [] the ideological successor to the LPF , more than doubled its number of seats.

This unprecedented minority government was supported by PVV, but proved ultimately to be unstable, [] when on 21 April , Wilders, leader of PVV, unexpectedly 'torpedoed seven weeks of austerity talks' on new austerity measures, paving the way for early elections.

On 5 November they formed the second Rutte cabinet. The Netherlands is divided into twelve provinces, each under a King's Commissioner Commissaris van de Koning.

Informally in Limburg province this position is named Governor Gouverneur. All provinces are divided into municipalities gemeenten , of which there are The country is also subdivided into 21 water districts as of , governed by a water board waterschap or hoogheemraadschap , each having authority in matters concerning water management.

The Dutch water boards are among the oldest democratic entities in the world still in existence. Direct elections of the water boards take place every 4 years.

The administrative structure on the 3 BES islands, collectively known as the Caribbean Netherlands , is outside the twelve provinces.

These islands have the status of openbare lichamen public bodies. The Netherlands has several Belgian exclaves [] and within those even several enclaves which are part of the province of North Brabant.

Because the Netherlands and Belgium are both in the Benelux , and more recently in the Schengen Area , citizens of respective countries can travel through these enclaves without controls.

The history of Dutch foreign policy has been characterised by its neutrality. The Dutch economy is very open and relies strongly on international trade.

The foreign policy of the Netherlands is based on four basic commitments: to Atlantic co-operation , to European integration , to international development and to international law.

One of the more controversial international issues surrounding the Netherlands is its liberal policy towards soft drugs. During and after the Dutch Golden Age , the Dutch people built up a commercial and colonial empire.

The most important colonies were present-day Suriname and Indonesia. Indonesia became independent after the Indonesian National Revolution in the s following a war of independence, international pressure and several United Nations Security Council resolutions.

Suriname became independent in The historical ties inherited from its colonial past still influence the foreign relations of the Netherlands.

In addition, many people from these countries are living permanently in the Netherlands. The Netherlands has one of the oldest standing armies in Europe; it was first established as such by Maurice of Nassau in the late s.

The Dutch army was used throughout the Dutch Empire. After the defeat of Napoleon, the Dutch army was transformed into a conscription army.

The army was unsuccessfully deployed during the Belgian Revolution in After , it was deployed mainly in the Dutch colonies, as the Netherlands remained neutral in European wars including the First World War , until the Netherlands was invaded in World War II and defeated by the Wehrmacht in May In conscription was suspended, and the Dutch army was once again transformed into a professional army.

Since the s the Dutch army has been involved in the Bosnian War and the Kosovo War , it held a province in Iraq after the defeat of Saddam Hussein , and it was engaged in Afghanistan.

The military is composed of four branches, all of which carry the prefix Koninklijke Royal :. The submarine service is open to women as of 1 January The Korps Commandotroepen , the Special Operations Force of the Netherlands Army, is open to women, but because of the extremely high physical demands for initial training, it is almost impossible for a woman to become a commando.

The Netherlands has ratified many international conventions concerning war law. The Netherlands has a developed economy and has been playing a special role in the European economy for many centuries.

Since the 16th century, shipping, fishing, agriculture, trade, and banking have been leading sectors of the Dutch economy. The Netherlands has a high level of economic freedom.

The Netherlands is one of the top countries in the Global Enabling Trade Report 2nd in , and was ranked the fifth most competitive economy in the world by the Swiss International Institute for Management Development in Foodstuffs form the largest industrial sector.

Other major industries include chemicals, metallurgy, machinery, electrical goods, trade, services and tourism. The Netherlands has the 17th-largest economy in the world , and ranks 10th in GDP nominal per capita.

Growth slowed considerably from to with the global economic slowdown, but accelerated to 4. In May , inflation was at 2. In Q3 and Q4 , the Dutch economy contracted by 0.

Amsterdam is the financial and business capital of the Netherlands. It is situated near Dam Square in the city's centre.

As a founding member of the euro , the Netherlands replaced for accounting purposes its former currency, the "gulden" guilder , on 1 January , along with 15 other adopters of the euro.

Actual euro coins and banknotes followed on 1 January One euro was equivalent to 2. In the Caribbean Netherlands , the United States dollar is used instead of the euro.

The Dutch location gives it prime access to markets in the UK and Germany, with the Port of Rotterdam being the largest port in Europe.

Other important parts of the economy are international trade Dutch colonialism started with co-operative private enterprises such as the Dutch East India Company , banking and transport.

The Netherlands successfully addressed the issue of public finances and stagnating job growth long before its European partners. Amsterdam is the 5th-busiest tourist destination in Europe with more than 4.

The Netherlands continues to be one of the leading European nations for attracting foreign direct investment and is one of the five largest investors in the United States.

The economy experienced a slowdown in , but in recovered to the fastest pace in six years on the back of increased exports and strong investment.

The pace of job growth reached year highs in The Netherlands is the fourth-most competitive economy in the world, according to the World Economic Forum 's Global Competitiveness Report.

Beginning in the s, the Netherlands discovered huge natural gas resources. The sale of natural gas generated enormous revenues for the Netherlands for decades, adding hundreds of billions of euros to the government's budget.

Apart from coal and gas, the country has no mining resources. The last coal mine was closed in The Groningen gas field , one of the largest natural gas fields in the world, is situated near Slochteren.

The cost of damage repairs, structural improvements to buildings, and compensation for home value decreases has been estimated at 6.

Around 35, homes are said to be affected. Netherlands is faced with future challenges as the energy supply is forecasted to fall short of the demand by the year in the gas sector.

This is attributed to the depletion of Netherlands's major gas field, Groningen, and the earthquakes that have hit the Groningen region.

Netherlands relies heavily on natural gas to provide energy. ON, Eneco and Delta that have significant influence over the energy policy.

This means the Dutch required nearly six times as much biocapacity as The Netherlands contains. As a result, The Netherlands was running a biocapacity deficit of 4.

The Dutch agricultural sector is highly mechanised, and has a strong focus on international exports. One-third of the world's exports of chilis , tomatoes and cucumbers goes through the country.

The Netherlands also exports one-fifteenth of the world's apples. Aside from that, a significant portion of Dutch agricultural exports consists of fresh-cut plants, flowers, and flower bulbs, with the Netherlands exporting two-thirds of the world's total.

Mobility on Dutch roads has grown continuously since the s and now exceeds billion km travelled per year, [] three quarters of which are done by car.

As part of its commitment to environmental sustainability, the Government of the Netherlands initiated a plan to establish over recharging stations for electric vehicles across the country.

The rollout will be undertaken by Switzerland-based power and automation company ABB and Dutch startup Fastned , and will aim to provide at least one station within a kilometre radius 30 miles from every home in the Netherlands.

Trains are frequent, with two trains per hour on lesser lines, [i] two to four trains per hour on average, and up to eight trains an hour on the busiest lines.

Cycling is a ubiquitous mode of transport in the Netherlands. Almost as many kilometres are covered by bicycle as by train. There are large bicycle parking facilities, particularly in city centres and at train stations.

The Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, with the rivers Meuse and Rhine providing excellent access to the hinterland upstream reaching to Basel , Switzerland, and into Germany and France.

As of [update] , Rotterdam was the world's eighth largest container port handling The harbour functions as an important transit point for bulk materials and between the European continent and overseas.

From Rotterdam goods are transported by ship, river barge, train or road. In , the Betuweroute , a new fast freight railway from Rotterdam to Germany, was completed.

Schiphol Airport , just southwest of Amsterdam, is the main international airport in the Netherlands, and the third busiest airport in Europe in terms of passengers.

In , the Royal Schiphol Group airports handled 70 million passengers. The Netherlands had an estimated population of 17,, as of 31 May It is the 64th most populous country in the world.

Between and , the country's population almost doubled from 5. From to , the population further increased, to The fertility rate in the Netherlands is 1.

According to a estimate, the population was The Dutch are the tallest people in the world, by nationality, [] with an average height of 1.

According to Eurostat , in there were 1. Of these, 1. According to Dutch Central Statistics Bureau, in , 28 percent of the Dutch population had a spendable income above 45, euros which does not include spending on health care or education.

The official language is Dutch , which is spoken by the vast majority of the inhabitants. In the European part of the kingdom two other regional languages are recognised under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.

The first of these recognised regional languages is Low Saxon Nedersaksisch in Dutch. Low Saxon consists of several dialects spoken in the north and east, like Tweants in the region of Twente , and Drents in the province of Drenthe.

Secondly, Limburgish is also recognised as a regional language. It consists of Dutch varieties of Meuse-Rhenish Franconian languages and is spoken in the south-eastern province of Limburg.

Ripuarian language , which is spoken in Kerkrade and Vaals in the form of, respectively, the Kerkrade dialect and the Vaals dialect [] [] is not recognised as a regional language of the Netherlands.

These dialects are however sometimes considered to be a part of or related to Limburgish. English has a formal status in the special municipalities of Saba and Sint Eustatius.

It is widely spoken on these islands. Papiamento has a formal status in the special municipality of Bonaire. Yiddish and the Romani language were recognised in as non-territorial languages.

In higher level secondary schools HAVO and VWO , the acquisition of two additional modern foreign language skills is mandatory during the first three years.

Only during the last three years in VWO one foreign language is mandatory. Besides English, the standard modern languages are French and German , although schools can replace one of these modern languages with Chinese , Spanish , Russian , Italian , Turkish or Arabic.

Religious identification in the Netherlands [3]. The Dutch are one of the least religious people in the world. Religion in the Netherlands was predominantly Christianity until late into the 20th century.

Although religious diversity remains, there has been a decline of religious adherence. In , Statistics Netherlands , the Dutch governmental institution that gathers statistical information about the Netherlands, found that Groups that represent the non-religious in the Netherlands include Humanistisch Verbond.

Christians comprised the Islam comprised the 4. The Constitution of the Netherlands guarantees freedom of education, which means that all schools that adhere to general quality criteria receive the same government funding.

This includes schools based on religious principles by religious groups especially Roman Catholic and various Protestant. By , Protestantism shrunk demographically to equal Roman Catholicism, and going onwards, both Christian branches began to decline.

There is one major exception: Islam which grew considerably as the result of immigration. Since the year there has been raised awareness of religion, mainly due to Muslim extremism.

The Dutch royal family has been traditionally associated with Calvinism , specifically the disestablished and now non-existent Dutch Reformed Church which merged into the Protestant Church in the Netherlands.

The Dutch Reformed Church has been the only major Protestant church in the Netherlands from the Protestant Reformation up until the 19th century.

It encompassed the vast majority of Protestants in the Reformed tradition until a series of splits in and in diversified Dutch Calvinism.

In , a Roman Catholic became Queen consort. Christianity is currently the largest religion in the Netherlands. The provinces of North Brabant and Limburg have historically been strongly Roman Catholic, and some of their people might still consider the Catholic Church as a base for their cultural identity.

Protestantism in the Netherlands consists of a number of churches within various traditions. Several orthodox Reformed and liberal churches did not merge into the PKN.

Although in the Netherlands as a whole Christianity has become a minority, the Netherlands contains a Bible Belt from Zeeland to the northern parts of the province Overijssel , in which Protestant particularly Reformed beliefs remain strong, and even has majorities in municipal councils.

Islam is the second largest religion in the state. This included migrant workers from Turkey and Morocco , as well as migrants from former Dutch colonies , such as Surinam and Indonesia.

Most of these are Indo-Surinamese. There are also sizable populations of Hindu immigrants from India and Sri Lanka , and some Western adherents of Hinduism-oriented new religious movements such as Hare Krishnas.

The Netherlands has an estimated , Buddhists or people strongly attracted to this religion, mainly ethnic Dutch people. There are about 45, Jews in the Netherlands.

Education in the Netherlands is compulsory between the ages of 5 and All children in the Netherlands usually attend elementary school from on average ages 4 to It comprises eight grades, the first of which is facultative.

Based on an aptitude test, the eighth grade teacher's recommendation and the opinion of the pupil's parents or caretakers, a choice is made for one of the three main streams of secondary education.

After completing a particular stream, a pupil may still continue in the penultimate year of the next stream. The VMBO has 4 grades and is subdivided over several levels.

Successfully completing the vmbo results in a low-level vocational degree that grants access to the MBO. The MBO middle-level applied education is a form of education primarily focuses on teaching a practical trade, or a vocational degree.

The HBO higher professional education are universities of professional education applied sciences that award professional bachelor's degrees; similar to polytechnic degrees.

A HBO degree gives access to the university system. The VWO comprising atheneum and gymnasium has 6 grades and prepares for studying at a research university.

Universities offer of a three-year bachelor's degree, followed by a one or two year master's degree, which in turn can be followed by a four or five-year doctoral degree program.

Doctoral candidates in the Netherlands are generally non-tenured employees of a university. All Dutch schools and universities are publicly funded and managed with the exception of religious schools that are publicly funded but not managed by the state even though requirements are necessary for the funding to be authorised.

Dutch universities have a tuition fee of about 2, euros a year for students from the Netherlands and the European Union. The amount is about 10, euros for non-EU students.

In , the Netherlands maintained its number one position at the top of the annual Euro health consumer index EHCI , which compares healthcare systems in Europe, scoring of a maximum 1, points.

The Netherlands has been among the top three countries in each report published since On 48 indicators such as patient rights and information, accessibility, prevention and outcomes, the Netherlands secured its top position among 37 European countries for six years in a row.

Ever since a major reform of the health care system in , the Dutch system received more points in the Index each year. According to the HCP Health Consumer Powerhouse , the Netherlands has 'a chaos system', meaning patients have a great degree of freedom from where to buy their health insurance, to where they get their healthcare service.

The difference between the Netherlands and other countries is that the chaos is managed. Healthcare decisions are being made in a dialogue between the patients and healthcare professionals.

Health insurance in the Netherlands is mandatory. Healthcare in the Netherlands is covered by two statutory forms of insurance:.

While Dutch residents are automatically insured by the government for AWBZ, everyone has to take out their own basic healthcare insurance basisverzekering , except those under 18 who are automatically covered under their parents' premium.

If a person decides not to carry out an insurance coverage, the person may be fined. Insurers have to offer a universal package for everyone over the age of 18 years, regardless of age or state of health — it's illegal to refuse an application or impose special conditions.

In contrast to many other European systems, the Dutch government is responsible for the accessibility and quality of the healthcare system in the Netherlands, but not in charge of its management.

Healthcare in the Netherlands can be divided in several ways: three echelons, in somatic and mental health care and in 'cure' short term and 'care' long term.

Home doctors huisartsen , comparable to general practitioners form the largest part of the first echelon. Being referenced by a member of the first echelon is mandatory for access to the second and third echelon.

Healthcare in the Netherlands is financed by a dual system that came into effect in January Long-term treatments, especially those that involve semi-permanent hospitalisation, and also disability costs such as wheelchairs, are covered by a state-controlled mandatory insurance.

For all regular short-term medical treatment, there is a system of obligatory health insurance , with private health insurance companies.

These insurance companies are obliged to provide a package with a defined set of insured treatments. A key feature of the Dutch system is that premiums may not be related to health status or age.

Risk variances between private health insurance companies due to the different risks presented by individual policy holders are compensated through risk equalisation and a common risk pool.

Children under 18 are covered for free. Those on low incomes receive compensation to help them pay their insurance. The Netherlands has had many well-known painters.

Escher is a well-known graphics artist. Willem de Kooning was born and trained in Rotterdam , although he is considered to have reached acclaim as an American artist.

The Netherlands is the country of philosophers Erasmus of Rotterdam and Spinoza. The Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens — discovered Saturn 's moon Titan , argued that light travelled as waves, invented the pendulum clock and was the first physicist to use mathematical formulae.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe and describe single-celled organisms with a microscope. Hooft as the two most famous writers.

In the 19th century, Multatuli wrote about the poor treatment of the natives in the Dutch colony, the current Indonesia. Anne Frank 's Diary of a Young Girl was published after she was murdered in the Holocaust and translated from Dutch to all major languages.

The traditional Dutch architecture is especially valued in Amsterdam , Delft and Leiden , with 17 and 18th century buildings along the canals.

Smaller village architecture with wooden houses is found in Zaandam and Marken. A similar Holland Village is being built in Shenyang , China.

Windmills , tulips , wooden shoes , cheese, Delftware pottery, and cannabis are among the items associated with the Netherlands by tourists.

The Netherlands has a long history of social tolerance and today is regarded as a liberal country, considering its drug policy and its legalisation of euthanasia.

On 1 April , the Netherlands became the first nation to legalise same-sex marriage. Dutch society is egalitarian and modern.

The Dutch have an aversion to the non-essential. The Dutch are proud of their cultural heritage , rich history in art and involvement in international affairs.

Dutch manners are open and direct with a no-nonsense attitude; informality combined with adherence to basic behaviour. According to a humorous source on Dutch culture, "Their directness gives many the impression that they are rude and crude — attributes they prefer to call openness.

Asking about basic rules will not be considered impolite. The Netherlands is one of the most secular countries of Europe, and religion is in the Netherlands generally considered as a personal matter which is not supposed to be propagated in public, although it often remains a discussion subject.

Sustainability is a concept important for the Dutch. The goal of the Dutch Government is to have a sustainable , reliable and affordable energy system, by , in which CO 2 emissions have been halved and 40 percent of electricity is derived from sustainable sources.

The government is investing billions of euros in energy efficiency , sustainable energy and CO 2 reduction.

The Netherlands has multiple music traditions. Traditional Dutch music is a genre known as " Levenslied ", meaning Song of life , to an extent comparable to a French Chanson or a German Schlager.

These songs typically have a simple melody and rhythm, and a straightforward structure of couplets and choruses.

Themes can be light, but are often sentimental and include love , death and loneliness. Traditional musical instruments such as the accordion and the barrel organ are a staple of levenslied music, though in recent years many artists also use synthesisers and guitars.

Contemporary Dutch rock and pop music Nederpop originated in the s, heavily influenced by popular music from the United States and Britain.

In the s and s the lyrics were mostly in English, and some tracks were instrumental. As of the s, more and more pop musicians started working in the Dutch language, partly inspired by the huge success of the band Doe Maar.

Today Dutch rock and pop music thrives in both languages, with some artists recording in both. Trijntje Oosterhuis , one of the country's most well known and versatile singers, has made multiple albums with famous American composers Vince Mendoza and Burt Bacharach.

Early s Dutch and Belgian house music came together in Eurodance project 2 Unlimited. Selling 18 million records, [] the two singers in the band are the most successful Dutch music artists to this day.

Tracks like " Get Ready for This " are still popular themes of U. In the mid s Dutch language rap and hip hop Nederhop also came to fruition and has become popular in the Netherlands and Belgium.

Since the s, Dutch electronic dance music EDM gained widespread popularity in the world in many forms, from trance , techno and gabber to hardstyle.

The Amsterdam Dance Event ADE is the world's leading electronic music conference and the biggest club festival for the many electronic subgenres on the planet.

The Netherlands have participated in the Eurovision Song Contest since its first edition in , and have won five times. Their most recent win was in In classical music , Jan Sweelinck ranks as the Dutch most famous composer, with Louis Andriessen amongst the best known living Dutch classical composers.

Ton Koopman is a Dutch conductor, organist and harpsichordist. He is also professor at the Royal Conservatory of The Hague. The latter, together with his Johann Strauss Orchestra , has taken classical and waltz music on worldwide concert tours, the size and revenue of which are otherwise only seen from the world's biggest rock and pop music acts.

The most famous Dutch classical composition is " Canto Ostinato " by Simeon ten Holt , a minimalistic composition for multiple instruments. Film director Theo van Gogh achieved international notoriety in when he was murdered by Mohammed Bouyeri in the streets of Amsterdam after directing the short film Submission.

Die englische Flotte ging Games Mit S ihrerseits an die Blockade der niederländischen Küsten und überfiel holländische Häfen und Inseln. Inländische Reisen in United Kingdom könnten davon beeinträchtigt werden. Da die Frequenz und die Überfahrtsdauer der Überfahrten variieren kann, empfehlen wir eine online Preisabfrage von Holland nach England Überfahrten durchzuführen. Im Süden befindet sich auch London, das kulturelle und geschäftliche Lightning Blitz des Landes. Reisen von Niederlande. Sie umfasste 91 Schiffe, Geschützen und Passagierfaehren Zielgebiete Holland. Wie ist der Zeitunterschied zwischen Niederlande und England? Die folgende Schlacht, die auch als St. Unter diesen vorteilhaften Bedingungen begann Charles II.

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